Parsi priests and lay scribes continued to copy sacred texts in Avestan and Middle Persian (Pahlavi), as well as New Persian prose texts, such as the Sad dar (‘100 doors’) and the Zarātusht nāmah (‘Life of Zoroaster’) into the mid 19th century. Buy Disk Enter the answer length or the answer pattern to get better results. The sacred book of Mazdeism is the Avesta. Meditation on the Mount—Conversion of King Gushtasp—Manifestations of the Deity. Avesta -- Zoroastrian Archives: Contents: Prev: Yasna (EN) Next: Glossary: ... See discussion in Boyce, Zoroastrianism - Its Antiquity and Constant Vigour, (Costa Mesa, Mazda Pub, 1992, p. 84 and 104 ff). Wilson argued that the Avesta could not be divinely inspired because much of its text was irrevocably lost or unintelligible and Martin Haug, who greatly helped the Parsis of India to defend their religion against the attacks of such Christian missionaries as Wilson, considered the Gathas to be the only texts and only authoritative scriptures that could be attributed to Zoroaster. Almut Hintze is Zartoshty Brothers Professor of Zoroastrianism at SOAS, University of London, and Fellow of the British Academy. CONTENTS . Daena should not be confused with the fundamental principle asha (Vedic rta), the equitable law of the universe, which governed the life of the ancient Indo-Iranians. There are twenty-one hymns, or Yashts (Yt), dedicated to a variety of divinities whose praise is not only legitimised, but demanded by Ahura Mazda, who presides over them all. Zoroastrianism. These religious ideas are encapsulated in the sacred texts of the Zoroastrians and assembled in a body of literature called the Avesta. Zarathustra is held to be the founder of the religion, and his followers call themselves Zartoshtis or Zoroastrians. This 17th century copy was written in Iran. Denkart: Sacred Texts in Zoroastrianism (1600 BC) ***** Click Here to View the Main Index ***** "The DENKARD is a ninth century encyclopedia of the Zoroastrian religion, but with extensive quotes from materials thousands of years older, including (otherwise) lost Avestan texts. The five Gathas consist of seventeen hymns, which together with the Yasna Haptanghaiti form the central portion of the key ritual of the Zoroastrian tradition, the Yasna of seventy-two chapters. Part III of the SBE Avesta translation. A collection of Zoroastrian texts, Professor Almut Hintze explores its history and some of the key components of the religion: its beliefs, sacred texts and rituals. The last phrase of verse 7, plus all of verses 8 and 9, are incorporated into the … The Zend Avesta, Part I: Vendîdâd (SBE 4) The Crossword Solver finds answers to American-style crosswords, British-style crosswords, general knowledge crosswords and cryptic crossword puzzles. It was then about four times larger than what has survived. The Avesta script was invented artificially, presumably around 600 CE, in the province of Pars in order to write down the sound of the recitation at a time when the meaning of the texts had long been forgotten. Why not take a few moments to tell us what you think of our website? [1] The Gathas do not explicitly condemn homosexual acts, although the Südgar Nask commentary on the Gathas dislikes sodomy . and the later parts … The Zend Avesta, Part I Sacred Books of the East, Vol. translated by James Darmesteter [1882] Sikand-gûmânîk Vigâr, and the Sad Dar The heading here has been decorated very much in the style of an illuminated Islamic manuscript. NOTE: ... (Sacred literature preserved in the middle … There is, however, a unique document from Central Asia, the so-called Sogdian Ashem vohū, which records the Avestan words of one of the Zoroastrian sacred prayers in Sogdian (a medieval Iranian language) script. Zoroastrianism is one of the oldest living world-religions. The Avesta was eventually written down in an alphabet designed especially for this purpose and developed on the basis of a cursive form of the Pahlavi script. part of the Wisdom of the East series, The Zend Avesta, Part I: Vendîdâd (SBE 4), The Zend Avesta, Part II: The Sîrôzahs, Ya, The Zend Avesta, Part III: (SBE 31) The Yasna, Visparad, Âfrînagân, Gâhs and Miscellaneous Fragments, Pahlavi Texts, Part I: (SBE 5) The Bundahi. The Avestan Yasna sādah. Central to Zoroastrianism is the profound dichotomy between good and evil and the idea that the world was created by God, Ahura Mazda, in order that the two forces could engage with one another and the evil one will be incapacitated. Pahlavi Texts, Part II (SBE 18) The Dâdistân-î Dînîk and the Epistles of Mânûskîhar E.W. Title Page Contents Introduction Chapter I. It is one of the oldest existing Zoroastrian manuscripts, copied in 1323 in Nawsari, Gujarat. Dating from the 9th century CE, this document is the oldest extant Zoroastrian manuscript, predating the Avestan manuscripts by about 300 years. Very few existing manuscripts also show illustrations. Most of the texts in these archives are extremely rare. Contents of the Nasks The Dâdistân-î Dînîk and the Epistles of Mânûskîhar For the first time in three millennia, the voice of Zarathushtra could speak directly through the newly re-translated Gathas. Today they form a religious minority in Iran of 10–30,000 persons. The Yasna, Vīdēvdād and other rituals are recited and performed by priests inside the fire-temple. Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE 37) Part II of the SBE Avesta translation. In addition, the Younger Avesta comprises devotional texts recited by both priest and lay members of the community, male and female alike. The Teachings of Zoroaster Whereas the Zoroastrian sacred texts were composed orally in the old Iranian language Avestan, the commentaries and explanations on them, referred to as the Zand, were written in Pahlavi, a middle Iranian language spoken in south-western Iran. By purchasing books through the links on this page, you will support the ongoing work of the Internet Sacred Text Archive. Zoroastrianism in late antiquity. It is the single most valuable source of information on this religion aside from the Avesta." Composed in an ancient Iranian language, Avestan, the Avesta is made up of different texts, most of which are recited in the Zoroastrian rituals, some of them by priests only, others by both priests and laypeople. ... To a Zoroastrian, a sacred fire is a living, glowing image of … The Zend Avesta, Part I: Vendîdâd (SBE 4) translated by James Darmesteter [1880] ... Long-lost Zoroastrian texts available now only in summaries and fragments. Index |  E.W. West [1885]. The Younger Avesta is not only linguistically more recent, but also much greater in volume and shows a more advanced stage of the religion’s development. translated by L.H. She currently directs a collaborative project on the Multimedia Yasna, funded by European Research Council (2016–2021), to produce an interactive film of a complete performance of the Yasna ritual, electronic tools for editing Avestan texts, and a text-critical edition, translation, commentary and dictionary of the Avestan Yasna. Arguably one of the most poetic sections of the whole Avesta, Yasna 44, consists of rhetorical questions posed to Ahura Mazda about the creation of the universe, such as who established the path of the sun and the stars, who made the moon wax and wane, and who holds the earth down below and prevents the clouds from falling down? A collection of Zoroastrian texts, An illustrated copy of the Avestan Vīdēvdād Sādah, the longest of all the Zoroastrian liturgies. Usage terms Public DomainHeld by© British Library. The poetic power of these texts, which are at the heart of the Avesta or Zoroastrian sacred literature, can still be appreciated today. The rest of the text tells a story of Zarathushtra coming before and paying homage to a ‘supreme god’ (presumably Ahura Mazda) in Paradise. The latter represent the basic source of the religion. Iran, early 17th century. Mt. Visitors are allowed to marvel at the site of the burning flames behind a glass window. Long-lost Zoroastrian texts available now only in summaries and fragments. Learn more about this ancient religion, and the sacred texts that inform its beliefs. Key medieval Zoroastrianian texts on creation, ritual purity, and prophecy. Key medieval Zoroastrianian texts on creation, ritual purity, and prophecy. In particular, the regions of Sistan and the Helmand basin play an important part in Zoroastrian imagery, suggesting that this area was a centre of Zoroastrianism from early on. Part I of the SBE Avesta translation. The remaining texts were gathered and compiled between the 3 rd and 7 th centuries C.E. These texts were composed orally at different times, and the oldest of them, the so-called Gathas, or ‘songs’ of Zarathustra, the Yasna Haptanghaiti and two prayers, probably date from some time in the mid- to late second millennium BCE. Open Source for the Human Soul. An introduction to Zoroastrianism The Ashem vohū prayer occupies the first two lines of the text and shows features of the local pronunciation of Avestan in Sogdian, unaffected by the way Avestan was pronounced in the province of Pars. This part of the site has complete online editions of the Sacred Books of the East's Zoroastrian texts: the three volume Avesta series, as well as the five volume Pahlavi series. February 1, 2007 Zoroastrian Texts translated with notes by Prods Oktor Skjærvø For use in Early Iranian Civilizations 102 (Divinity School no. In the Gathas, the most sacred texts of Zoroastrianism thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself, the prophet acknowledged devotion to no other divinity besides Ahura Mazda. It is a heterogeneous collection of texts composed at different periods by different authors dealing with various aspects of religious worship, beliefs and instructions. Non-public domain contents of this site It is thought to have taken root in Central Asia during the second millennium BCE, and from there spread south to Iran. What are the key sacred texts of Zoroastrianism? West [1892] This is part I of the Sacred Books of the East Zend Avesta translation. In this trilingual text, certain rebels have magian as an attribute; in the Old Persian portion as maγu-(generally assumed to be a loan word from Median). Ushi-darena (translated as 'Support of Divine Consciousness' or 'Sustainer of Divine Wisdom') is the mountain where Zoroaster attained illumination and received the revealed knowledge of the supreme … devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship Zoroastrianism thus shares a common heritage with the Vedic religion of Ancient India and Hinduism. Zoroastrianisms sacred text NYT Crossword Clue Answers are listed below and every time we find a new solution for this clue we add it on the answers list. Mills [1887] West [1882] Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE 24) Dînâ-î Maînôg-î Khirad, Sikand-gûmânîk Vigâr, and the Sad Dar E.W. Your views could help shape our site for the future. The Avesta is, therefore, a collection of texts compiled in successive stages until it was completed under the Sasanians. Sacred Books of the East's Zoroastrian texts: the three volume The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. Zoroaster's Crusade … Ursula Sims-Williams describes the history of the Zoroastrian religion during the Sasanian Empire, its interaction with the Judeo-Christian world and the development of its sacred texts into a written corpus from an oral tradition. Soon after the Arab conquest of Iran in 651 CE, there was an exodus of Zoroastrians from Iran to the Indian subcontinent where they settled and became known as the Parsis, and became an influential minority under British Colonial rule. For these, asha was the course of everything … The Zend Avesta. E.W. Zoroaster preaching Mazdeism. West [1882], Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE 24) E.W. Contact |  Long-lost Zoroastrian texts available now only in summaries and fragments. The most sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism is called the Avesta. The texts were originally composed in the ancient Avestan language, believed to be closely related to Sanskrit and part of the Indo European group of languag… Late Zoroastrian texts of traditional history and prophecy. The other instance appears in the texts of the Avesta, the sacred literature of Zoroastrianism. The British Library is home to one of them. The Khordah Avesta (‘small Avesta’) contains prayers, hymns and invocations recited by priests and lay people in daily worship. Yasna, the sacred liturgical texts of the Avesta (Zoroastrian scriptures), which include the Gathas, or sacred hymns of Zarathushtra. Zoroastrian Sacred Text: The Zorastrian holy book is called the Avesta. E.W. Professor Almut Hintze explores its history and some of the key components of the religion: its beliefs, sacred texts and rituals. It was only then that Zoroastrians withdrew to the desert towns of Kerman and Yazd. Several reasons for visiting might include worship, praises, remembrance of Ahura … West [1885] Pahlavi Texts, Part IV (SBE 37) These, we are informed, dealt with religion, philosophy, ethics, medicine, and various ... and the Rig Veda furnishes us with the earliest sacred texts that are helpful in the better understanding of the religious beliefs of the pre-Gathic, Gathic, and the … Zoroastrianism, ancient pre- Islamic religion of Iran that survives there in isolated areas and, more prosperously, in India, where the descendants of Zoroastrian Iranian (Persian) immigrants are known as Parsis, or Parsees. Sacred text of Zoroastrianism is a crossword puzzle clue that we have spotted 1 time. "The Denkart is a large collection of … The oldest portion of the Avesta are the writings of Zarathustra himself and called the Gathas . Like many religions, pilgrimage also serves an important purpose for Zoroastrianism. The Vīdēvdād, or Vendidād as it is also known, is chiefly concerned with reducing pollution in the material world and represents a vital source for our knowledge and understanding of Zoroastrian purity laws. by S.A. Kapadia [1905] Dînâ-î Maînôg-î Khirad, All Avestan texts were composed and transmitted orally, although presumably from the late Sasanian period onwards there also existed a written tradition. There are related clues (shown below). In addition to manuscripts providing the Avestan texts to be recited in the rituals, there is a second group of bilingual manuscripts, which give the Avestan text together with its translation into Pahlavi. The most … Pahlavi Texts, Part II (SBE 18) Sacred text of Zoroastrianism is a crossword puzzle clue. The Discovery of the Zend-Avesta Chapter II. Choose Yes please to open the survey in a new browser window or tab, and then complete it when you are ready. This image shows the first page of a manuscript which begins with the Yatha ahu vairyo (‘Just as he is to be chosen by life’) and the Ashem vohū (‘Good order’), two of the holiest Zoroastrian prayers. Discovering Sacred Texts With its roots in central Asia 3,500 years ago, Zoroastrianism has a rich history of interaction with the Abrahamic faiths, and of migration around the world. From there Zoroastrians migrated to other parts of the world especially Britain, America and Australia where they form diaspora communities today. Search |  Sources of information on Zoroastrian sacred mountains are found in parts of Zoroastrian Avesta literature known as Zamyad Yasht and the Pahlavi Bundahishn. These texts are referred to as Older Avesta as their language is more archaic than that of the rest. West [1880] Zoroastrianism, in spite of its small current number of adherents, Zoroastrians believe that their religion was revealed by their supreme God, called Ahura Mazda, or ‘Wise Lord’, to a priest called Zarathustra (or Zoroaster, as the Greeks called him). 15. The Zend Avesta, Part I: Vendîdâd (SBE 4) translated by James Darmesteter [1880] Part I of the SBE Avesta translation. The daily Yasna ceremony, which priests are still required to learn and recite by heart, is the most important of all Zoroastrian rituals. Not only was it a cohort of the ancient Vedic Hinduism, Click the answer to find similar crossword clues. This is a copy of the Vīdēvdād accompanied by its Pahlavi translation and interpretation. p. 6 p. 7. The Pahlavi script in turn is derived from Aramaic, the chief administrative language of the Achaemenid Empire. Note: since the selection of books seen here is generated by Amazon's search engine, we can't guarantee all results will be relevant. There are also other liturgical texts in the Avesta known as “Yasna” (a term meaning “reverence”) which are studied and read in the rites of t… the Avestan text without any commentary), contain the end of Yasna 43 and the beginning of Yasna 44. The Interpretation of the Zend-Avesta Chapter III. Zoroastrianism became the foremost religion of the Achaemenid (550–330 BCE), Parthian (247 BCE–224 CE) and Sasanian (224–651 CE) empires, engaging with the religions of the Jews and with nascent Christianity and Islam. ... scriptures. It brings together a compilation of sacred texts in the form of chants written by the prophet Zarathustra. not otherwise copyrighted are © copyright 2010, One of the holiest Zoroastrian prayers, the Ashem vohū, this manuscript discovered at Dunhuang by Aurel Stein in 1917. This includes the original words of their founder Zarathushtra, preserved in a series of five hymns, called the Gathas. In this manuscript, each sentence is given first in the original Avestan (Old Iranian) language, and then in Pahlavi (Middle Persian), the language of Sasanian Iran. The tradition of the Avesta and its exegesis that has come down to the present day is that of the province of Pars, the centre of imperial and priestly power during the Sasanian era. West [1897] but also had a huge influence on the development of Judaism She specialises in Zoroastrianism and the tradition of its sacred texts, of which she has published several editions. As the tradition of the Avesta was entirely oral, its translation and explanation would have been memorised together with the Avesta, although the exegesis, called Zand, was more flexible and open to being altered and expanded. The Avesta contains multiple sections, each of which is further subdivided. 3663a). The individual deities are also invoked for particular tasks. The Formation of the … Avesta, also called Zend-avesta, sacred book of Zoroastrianism containing its cosmogony, law, and liturgy, the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra). E.W. It contains only consonants and is read from right to left. … The Gathas are traditionally attributed to Zarathustra, the eponymous founder of the Zoroastrian tradition. The Avesta texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by dialect, or by usage.The principal text in the liturgical group is the Yasna, which takes its name from the Yasna ceremony, Zoroastrianism's primary act of worship, and at which the Yasna text is recited. These religious ideas are encapsulated in the sacred texts of the Zoroastrians and assembled in a body of literature called the Avesta. Avesta is a repository of oral texts, transmitted orally in fixed linguistic form until it was written down. Pahlavi Texts, Part V (SBE 47) translated by James Darmesteter [1880] Pahlavi Texts, Part I: (SBE 5) The Bundahis, Bahman Yast and Shayâst Lâ-Shâyast and Christianity. Folio 151 verso shows the beginning of chapter nine of the Zoroastrian law-book, which concerns the nine-night purification ritual (barashnum nuh shab) for someone who has been defiled by contact with a dead body. PAGE. Sacred Texts Zoroastrianism Buy this Book at Amazon.com. Compiled over many centuries, the Avesta was not completed until Persia's Sassanid dynasty (226-641 CE). The Khūrda Avesta, or “Small Avesta,” is made up of minor texts. 16. These texts were written in the ancient languages Avestan and Gnathic. John Bruno Hare, All Rights Reserved. With this is the belief in an afterlife that is determined by the choices people make while on earth, the final and definitive defeat of evil at the end of time and a restoration of the world to its once perfect state. See Site copyrights, Terms of Service for more information. If you don't see something you like, just refresh your browser and see what else comes up, or click on the link 'Search for more books … Notes on Zoroastrian sacred mountains. The sacred texts of Zorastrianism are called The Avesta. In the Zoroastrian calendar, each of the thirty days of the month is dedicated to one particular deity whose name it bears and whose hymn, or Yasht, is recited on that day. It was probably the first Zoroastrian sacred text to be brought to England. The Avesta (/ ə ˈ v ɛ s t ə /) is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in Avestan language.. The older part (Old Avesta) was composed between 1500–1000 B.C.E. Avesta series, as well as the five volume Pahlavi series. The Zend Avesta, Part II: The Sîrôzahs, Yasts and Nyâyis (SBE 23) Text [Zipped] This is a short study of the Zoroastrian religion, part of the Wisdom of the East series. The extant Avesta is all that remains of a much larger body of scripture , apparently Zoroaster’s transformation of a very ancient tradition. Zoroastrianism is one of the world’s oldest known living religions and has its origins in the distant past. It also includes information about the Avestan language, and other useful information for students of Zoroastrian religion. In addition, there are short prayers, blessings and other texts collected in the Small, or Khordah, Avesta. The manuscript was copied in Yazd, Iran, for a Zoroastrian of Kirman in 1647. part of the Wisdom of the East series, This is a quiet place in cyberspace FAQ |  Thanks! Mithra, for instance, is the deity who watches over contracts, while Anahita is especially close to women and helps them conceive and give birth. Folios 96-97 of this copy of the Yasna sādah, or ‘pure’ Yasna (i.e. Late Zoroastrian texts of traditional history and prophecy. The Tiger Who Came to Tea by Judith Kerr: sketches and original artwork, Sean's Red Bike by Petronella Breinburg, illustrated by Errol Lloyd, Unfinished Business: The Fight for Women's Rights, The fight for women’s rights is unfinished business, Get 3 for 2 on all British Library Fiction, Why you need to protect your intellectual property, Zoroastrianism from the early modern period, A 17th century textbook on comparative religion. Clue: Sacred text of Zoroastrianism. Pahlavi Texts, Part V (SBE 47) Marvels of Zoroastrianism E.W. In the Gathas, the most sacred texts of Zoroastrianism thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself, Zoroaster acknowledged the highest devotion to Ahura Mazda, with worship and adoration also given to Ahura Mazda's manifestations (Amesha Spenta) and the other ahuras that support Ahura Mazda. In the Avesta are the “Gathas” or “Gahs”, which are the chants that serve as prayer, and which must be recited five times a day by the followers of Mazdeism. Marvels of Zoroastrianism ... Zoroastrianism Pilgrimage. Please consider the environment before printing, All text is © British Library and is available under Creative Commons Attribution Licence except where otherwise stated. Zoroastrianism is the oldest of the revealed world-religions, and it has probably had more influence on mankind, directly and indirectly, than any other single faith. If you encounter two or more answers look at the most recent one i.e the last item on the answers box. has played a huge role in the study of comparative religion. Key medieval Zoroastrianian texts on creation, ritual purity, and prophecy. The Zoroastrian sacred text is the Avesta ("Book of the Law"), a fragmentary collection of sacred writings. ads This crossword clue might have … Zoroastrianism’s sacred text Crossword Clue Read More » The Avestan text of this manuscript includes ritual instructions in Pahlavi written in red ink. The Zend Avesta, Part III: (SBE 31) The Yasna, Visparad, Âfrînagân, Gâhs and Miscellaneous Fragments The Hadhoxt Nask (“Section Containing Sayings”) describes the fate of the soul after death. The principal Zoroastrian scripture is called the Avesta or Zend-i-Avesta, meaning interpretation of Avesta. The Zend Avesta. The Crossword Solver found 21 answers to the zoroastrianism's sacred text crossword clue. The Teachings of Zoroaster, by S.A. Kapadia, [1905], full text etext at sacred-texts.com ... Sacred Texts Zoroastrianism Wisdom of the East Index Previous Next The Teachings of Zoroaster, by S.A. Kapadia, [1905], at sacred-texts.com. The Zorastrian Holy Book is called the Avesta and it is a compilation of all Zoroastrian prayers, which were composed over several centuries, some dating back to more than 3500 years. Instructions on Zoroastrian ritual matters: The migration of the Zoroastrians from Iran to India: Galleries, Reading Rooms, shop and catering opening times vary. Avesta, the Zoroastrian Religious Text . Zoroastrianism lost its dominant position when the Arabs invaded and defeated the Sasanian Empire, although it lived on especially in rural areas of Iran until the Turkish and Mongol invasions in the 11th and 13th centuries. Writing the ritual instructions in red ink helped the priests to navigate through the manuscript. Masudi state that the Zoroastrian texts were copied on 12,000 cowhides.2 Parsi tradition speaks of twenty-one Nasks or volumes written by Zarathushtra. It is a beautifully written and decorated copy of a ceremony called the Vīdēvdād, and shows seven coloured illuminations, all of trees. The meaning of the term in this context is uncertain. It developed about three and a half thousand years ago from the ancient Indo-Iranian religion that was once shared by the ancestors of nomadic herding tribes that later settled in Iran and northern India. The Avestan sacred texts and the Gathas were preserved in a sort of linguistic amber until the twentieth century, when pioneering scholars cracked the texts' Indo-European code by comparing it to the Sanskrit of the Rig-Veda. It is a Zoroastrian fire temple, and in there lies a sacred fire believed to be burning since approximately 2000 years ago. This part of the site has complete online editions of the Zoroastrian Fire Temple of Yazd, Iran Zoroastrian Fire Temple of Yazd, Iran. 4 translated by James Darmesteter [1880] Contents Start Reading. Composed in an ancient Iranian language, Avestan, the Avesta is made up of different texts, most of which are recited in the Zoroastrian rituals, some of them by priests only, others by both priests and laypeople. The original Avesta is believed to have been largely destroyed when Alexander the Great attacked Persia. This part of the site has complete online editions of the Sacred Books of the East's Zoroastrian texts: the three volume Avesta series, as well as the five volume Pahlavi series. S.A. Kapadia, who along with L. Cranmer-Byng, edited or wrote many of the books in the Wisdom of the East, The script is based on the Pahlavi script which had been in use for many centuries for writing Middle Persian texts. Copied in Yazd, Iran, in 1647. The implied answer, of course, is that Ahura Mazda has arranged all of this. Zoroastrian Sacred Text. An illustrated copy of a ceremony called the Vīdēvdād, and other useful information for students of Zoroastrian Avesta known... Sādah, the Ashem vohū, this manuscript includes ritual instructions in written. Manuscript, predating the Avestan Vīdēvdād sādah, or ‘ pure ’ (! Take a few moments to tell us what you think of our website CE ) 1 time 21 to... To as older Avesta as their language is more archaic than that of the ’. 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